Friday, May 22, 2020
Travelers to France and other French-speaking areas of the world may like to get behind the wheel of a car and drive. If you are in that group, you will need to know a few French words related to driving. By the end of this French vocabulary lesson, you will be able to identify various parts of a car, be familiar with navigation, and know how to speak about people and roads in French. It is an easy lesson and one that you will find useful while you travel. Should you decide to drive and need to rent a car, you will find more useful words in phrases in the French travel lesson. Note: Many of the words below are linked to .wav files. Simply click on the link to listen to the pronunciation. Vehicles on the Road (VÃ ©hicules sur la route) First of all, you need to learn the French words for the basic types of vehicles (vÃ ©hicules) that you will encounter on the road. These are all part of transportation (leÃ transport). Car -Ã uneÃ autoÃ (apocope*Ã ofÃ automobile)Ã orÃ uneÃ voiture Bicycle -Ã uneÃ bicycletteÃ or unÃ vÃ ©loÃ (apocopeÃ ofÃ vÃ ©locipÃ ¨de -Ã archaic) Motorbike -Ã uneÃ motoÃ (apocopeÃ ofÃ motocyclette) Bus -Ã lautobus Truck -Ã un camion Taxi - unÃ taxi * What is an apocope? It is a word that is a shortened version of the original word. In French, the wordÃ automobileÃ is oftenÃ shortened toÃ auto, just like it is in English. PeopleÃ on the Road (Les gens sur la route) While you are driving, there are a few people that you will meet. Of course, other drivers (conducteurs) are among them. Driver -Ã unÃ conducteurÃ (false cognateÃ of conductor) Drivers license -Ã un permis de conduire Police Officer -Ã un policier HitchhikingÃ -Ã lauto-stopÃ (m) To hitchhike -Ã faire de lauto-stopÃ Hitchhiker -Ã un autoÃ stoppeur Types of Roads (Types de routes) Even if you are not in a car, you will find it useful to know the French words for various types of roads.Ã Ã¢â¬â¹Street (la rue) is the one that you will encounter most often as it is used in the names of many streets. For example, famous streets in Paris include Rue de Barres, Rue de lAbreuvoir, and Rue Montorgueil. Street -Ã laÃ rue Highway -Ã uneÃ autoroute Traffic circle -Ã rond-pointÃ (it can vary from country to country)Court - cour Toll -Ã unÃ pÃ ©age Toll road -Ã une autoroute Ã pÃ ©age Ã To pay a toll -Ã de payer unÃ pÃ ©age Driving the Car Now that you know what, whom, and where you will be driving, it is time to learn the words for how to drive in French. To drive -Ã conduireÃ orÃ rouler On the way -Ã en route Trip -Ã uneÃ excursion To go on walks / trips -Ã excursionnerÃ To go / move (in reference to cars and traffic) -Ã circuler Navigation If your navigator is speaking in French while you are driving, then these words are absolutely essential. Without them, you might take a wrong turn (mauvais tournant). Straight ahead -Ã tout droit To cross -Ã traverser To turn - tourner To the right -Ã Ã droite To the left -Ã Ã gauche Turn signal -Ã leÃ clignotant To park -Ã stationner To pass -Ã doubler Traffic Stop lights are inevitable and, with luck, you will not be stuck in a traffic jam. Yet, it is best to be prepared and you can always practice your French if you do get stuck in traffic (circulation). Stop light -Ã leÃ feuÃ rouge Traffic jam -Ã unÃ embouteillage And,Ã hopefully, your car does not break down in traffic. If it does, you can be prepared to explain it to someone. Broken-down -Ã en panneÃ To break down -Ã Ã ªtre/tomber en panne At the Gas Station If you choose to drive, a stop at the gas station (uneÃ station-service) is inevitable. It is important to know which type of gas your car needs. Gas / petrol -Ã de lessenceÃ (f) Regular gas -Ã essence ordinaire Premium gas - essenceÃ duÃ super Diesel -Ã le gasoil, gazole To fill it up -Ã faire le plein Parts of a Car Finally, we will wrap up our French driving lesson with a quick look at a few parts of the car. Gas pedal -Ã unÃ accÃ ©lÃ ©rateur Accelerator -Ã unÃ champignonÃ (informal)Steering wheel - leÃ volant Stick shift -Ã la boÃ ®te manuelle Windshield -Ã unÃ pare-brise Windshield wipers -Ã lesÃ essuie-glaces Headlights - lesÃ phares High beams -Ã lesÃ feuxÃ deÃ route Brakes - lesÃ freins Brake lights -Ã leÃ feuxÃ deÃ stop
Thursday, May 7, 2020
The existence of God, or a divine being, has been a metaphysical subject that has been contemplated since thousands of years by ancient philosophers such as Thales, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and many more. Medieval philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas, who is most famously known for combining principles of faith and reason into a philosophy known as Thomism. The Ã¢â¬Å"five waysÃ¢â¬ of proofing the existence of God, which is Article three, of Question 2, of part I, of his Ã¢â¬Å"Summa TheologiÃ ¦Ã¢â¬ , gives five different ways of proofing the existence of God. In this essay, the five ways of Aquinas will be explained. The first way of proofing the existence of God is an argument based on motion. Aquinas notes that our senses aware us that things in our environment are in motion. Something that is motionless, would be considered to have potentiality of motion. This means that potentially it could be put into motion. On the other hand, something in motion would be considered to have actuality of motion. Things that have potentiality of motion, can be put into motion by something else that has actuality of motion. To illustrate, a pool ball that is motionless has potential motion. The moment the cue stick hits the ball, its potentiality of motion becomes actuality of motion, that is because the cue stick had actuality of motion in first place. This means that actuality is needed to change potentiality into actuality. However, Aquinas then notes that things cannot change its own potentiality intoShow MoreRelatedAre There Any Immoral Religions Or Any Moral Atheists?1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescomprehend ing the nature of any other type of philosophical discipline. Many of the philosophers in the past believed in the existence of a Mighty being who is in control of everything. In the same breath, Aristotle and Aquinas believed that God took care of everything, and only living a virtuous life guaranteed to be like Him. On some issues, Aquinas supported Aristotle s thinking, while in others he differed intensely. To achieve this goal, an array of intellectual and ethical virtues enables anRead MoreThe Five Ways Of Proving God s Existence790 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEdward Tajchman Intro to Philosophy 29 October 2014 Reflections on The Essay, The Five Ways of Proving God s Existence, by Thomas Aquinas Aquinas proposes that there are five ways of proving the existence of god. The first way is motion. Things in motion are not put in motion of their own accord, so they must have been put in motion by another force. This takes a thing from potentiality into the realm of actuality. Because this thing cannot be the mover and also the thing being moved, another forceRead MoreSt. Thomas Aquinas And The Catholic Church1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Luther Vs Aquinas Nick Pascuzzi TH 3000 Dr. Campbell 11/21/2016 Ã¢â¬Æ' St. Thomas Aquinas, was born near Naples, Italy, in 1225. Educated in the Dominican Order in Paris and Cologne, he devoted his life to the knowledge of God. He died in 1274, was canonized in 1323. In 1567 he was proclaimed a Doctor of the Universal Church (NCE 14:13-29). Martin Luther, was born on the 10th of November in 1483 in the Holy Roman Empire. He was baptized as Catholic, but he became a significant figure inRead MoreThe Existence Of God : An Argument881 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Existence of God The philosophical arguments presented in this document are not of religious text, nor scientific observation or established fact. Rather the premise of this God proof is bring together and share the various theories on which other God proofs have established foundations. I have heard it quoted that Ã¢â¬Å"Philosophy goes where hard science can t, or won t. Philosophers have a license to.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, with this in mind, I attest that it is more than problematic to construct anRead MoreThe Bible Is The Best Gift God Essay1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Bible, although written by man is God s word to the world. The unity showed in the bible over such a long period of time, and over multiple continents is proof that it was written by something more than just a mere human, and that it was instead written by someone with divine power. The bibleÃ¢â¬â¢s timeline spans centuries, but the impact that the bible has will continue indefinitely. Although there are millions of believers th ere is also almost an equal amount of skeptics. Because no physical evidenceRead MoreSir Thomas Aquinas And William Paley s Argument On The Existence Of God1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesarguments for the existence of God. Aquinas defines God as omnibenevolent (all good) for his argument, and he continues in Ã¢â¬Å"The Five WaysÃ¢â¬ to present arguments to prove GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence (Rosen et al. 11). Paley, on the other hand, primarily defines God as a designer worthy of our admiration for his work (Rosen et al. 27). During class discussion, defining God involved three major qualities: omnipotence, omniscience, and omnibenevolence. Both Aquinas and Paley are attempting to prove the existence of the (Christian)Read MoreThe Media And Its Popularity933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMan has always asked about natureÃ¢â¬â¢s existence and how did it come to be. Did the origin of life accidentally come into being, or was it the artwork of a more majestic being? Or did the self. existing God gi ve nature the trigger and everything else came in an orderly manner? These types of questions are not new to humanity. Predated philosophers since the times of Plato and Aristotle, around 300.400 BC, have already asked themselves about their existence. On the other side, theologians have alwaysRead MoreThe Argument For The Existence Of God1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMy paper scrutinizes numerous logical disputes for and alongside the presence of God. I shall argue that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no adequate evidence or inclusive arguments for the existence of God. It is grounded on the views of certain great philosophers and scientists of all of mankind. Generally speaking for myself, I would correspond to have faith that there is Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬ . Regrettably, itÃ¢â¬â¢s awfully well-defined that the being built up on insightful faith is no longer a suitable custom to shadow. During the courseRead MoreMontaigne and Augustine1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesregards to Montaigne s statement on page 23 in Apology for Raymond Sebond, I would deduce that he was using the metaphor of nature and natural tendencies in opposition to man s vain, self-seeking faÃ §ade that displaces God the creator. Montaigne s statement appears to (on the surface at least) value mans naturalistic tendencies and graces in a much better light than our own vain-striving presumptions that claim that our competent utterances hold the very answers to the right way in which to conductRead MoreTragedy : The Soul Of Tragedy940 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespurpose. Using the term soul, most would say, is very religious. The soul is the apex of our being; our very existence is d ependent on our souls tactfulness. Tragedy some assume only happens to a certain type of person. Aristotle explains a tragedy can only happen to that of a Ã¢â¬Ëgood personÃ¢â¬â¢, for if something bad were to happen to a bad person society wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t relate to it as a tragedy. Aristotle writes, Ã¢â¬Å"For our pity is excited by misfortunes undeservedly suffered, and our terror by some resemblance
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The problems that we can discus in this part is about the introduction of smart devices and system in our homes, the risk and threats linked to them, and respectively to the smart home inhabitants will grow. So, the digital world as we know it now has gradually developed standards, protocols, interface, operating systems, programming models and architectures during the last 50 decades, making both computing and networking a type of plug-and- play environment. Nowadays the smart homes and its services, from a highly heterogeneous environment, which presents a significant challenge for future users and manufacturers. We will write a custom essay sample on Smart Devices and System in Our Homes or any similar topic only for you Order Now So, healthcare services contain unknown so far danger for humanÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The scenario of a villain causing a heart attack by remote intervention in a pacemaker or shutting down an insulin pump on a diabetic is not in the realm of movies but occur due to real sensitive that exist in connected medical devices. Furthermore, these are rather worrying facts, bearing in mind that between 1993 and 2009, 2.9 million patients received permanent pacemakers in the united states with this this number constantly increasing. The cyber threats are any identified effort directed toward access to, exfiltration of, manipulation of, or impairment to the integrity, confidentiality, security, or availability of data, an application, or a federal system, without lawful authority.In our everyday life, a threat to our home can be an open window or unlocked door, an iron or cooker that are not turned off or water running from an open tap. In future smart homes, in addition to the threats related to the household appliance, there can emerge dangers directed to the health or life of the inhabitants. The consequences of cyber-attacks can lead to serious problems like access sensitives information, espionage, data theft, financial losses. The nature, complexity, and severity of the cyber threats are increasing in time, which makes it difficult to build a good classification framework.Potential consequences of cyber-attacks can be: Rejection of service DOS targeting the sensors, video surveillance or communication system. Data integrity violation or data modification in communication media. System breaking with unauthorized access to network resources or system integration resources. The good transact with the attack, it is: To have an operating intrusion detection system. To have an attack prevention system. To maintain reliable identification, authentication and access control. To support leakage monitoring information. To employ reliable and effective communication protocol. To operate secure integrating system and external communication system. How to cite Smart Devices and System in Our Homes, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Prior to the development of scientific management, works were performed by skilled craftsmen who had learned their jobs by apprenticeships and they made their own decisions about how their job was to be carried out. Scientific management changed skilled crafts to a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers who could be trained to perform the task, Taylor developed this theory as he worked his way up from a labourer to a manager in a US steelworks company. He realised the worker in his company were not efficient, hence he wanted to improve the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ productivity. Talyor stated that inefficiency is caused by both labour and management. He had observed, that workers purposely operate below their capacity and at the slowest rate that would not be punished, which is called soldiering. Managers were incompetence and irrational. Managers lacked information and knowledge about work process, workerÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and the time which is required to complete the tasks. We will write a custom essay sample on Scientific Management or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Time management is done by guesswork. Taylor portrayed managers as ignorant, arbitrary, selfish and blind to their own real interest. Rose, Rational Workmen and Incompetent Managers, 1978) TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific management can be divided into three broad areas. The first is improving the organisational structure and routine. The second is the measurement of work and the design of task. The third is on the selection and motivation of workers (Rose, Rational Workmen and Incompetent Managers, 1978). Taylor started Ã¢â¬Å"Functional ForemanshipÃ¢â¬ to improve the company organisational structure and routine. Workers are more likely to be less productive when supervised by a manager who is ignorant about the work process. Hence, Taylor recommended that 8 foremen are required to supervise the workers, because one foreman will not be able to be expert in all the work process. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s functional foremanship is separated into planning and operation. The four position Taylor named for planning foremen are route clerk, who determines the sequence of operations; instruction card clerk, who gives out detailed instructions about the work; time and cost clerk, who determines the time table, materials and cost of labour for a job and disciplinarian, who handles problems with discipline and absenteeism. managementstudyguide, 2008) The operations foremen are those in charge of the on-the-job-performance. They are the gang boss, who sets up the equipment; speed boss, who is responsible for maintaining a proper speed of work; repair boss, who is responsible for the repairs and maintenance of machines; and inspector, who is responsible for maintaining the quality of production. (managementstudyguide, 2008) Ta ylor developed work-study. It is the scientific study of a task to find the Ã¢â¬Ëone best wayÃ¢â¬â¢ to perform that task . It focuses on the methods used in the task, the time taken to finish the task, the tools used, the level of fatigue. Time study was characterized by the use of a stopwatch to time a workerÃ¢â¬â¢s sequence of motions, to determine the time to perform the job. This technique is based on the study of an average worker having reasonable skill and ability. Motion study, observe the movement to perform a job. The purpose of motion study is to eliminate useless motions and determine the best way of doing the job. Motion study increases efficiency and productivity of workers by cutting down useless motions. Taylor designed workplace experiments to determine optimal performance level. He picked ten to fifteen men who have reasonable skills in the job and observe them and notice the elements of the sequence of operations they employed. Using a stopwatch, he timed each element for each worker. Identifying and eliminating useless operations that do not have contribution to the task. He then select the quickest methods discovered in each element and fit them into a sequence and teach the other workers this sequence, forbidding any differences. Lastly, add up the times for each element and include allowance for resting, this will be the Ã¢â¬Å"quickest and bestÃ¢â¬ method for the job. Since, it is the Ã¢â¬Å"best wayÃ¢â¬ all the workers have to practise it. (Rose, Rational Workmen and Incompetent Managers, 1978) Designing of tools to suit the work process is important to increase work productivity. Materials, weight, length of the tool are taken into consideration of designing a better tool. Taylor experiments with shovel design until he had a design that would allow workers to shovel for several hours straight. Worker will get tired after working for long hours and productivity will decrease. Hence, study could determine the number of hours or maximum amount of work a worker can do in a day before fatigue sets in. Lastly is labour selection and motivation. Taylor said that every task should be performed by a Ã¢â¬Ëfirst class manÃ¢â¬â¢ for a specific task. Ã¢â¬Å"First-classÃ¢â¬ men should be given Ã¢â¬Å"a fair dayÃ¢â¬â¢s pay for a fair dayÃ¢â¬â¢s workÃ¢â¬ . (Rose 1978: 36) Ã¢â¬Å"First-classÃ¢â¬ man can be both born and trained. Workers should go for training and development courses so that they are always performing their work as efficiently as possible, Taylor believed that all workers work for extrinsic reasons and are motivated by money. Therefore he promoted the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"a fair dayÃ¢â¬â¢s pay for a fair dayÃ¢â¬â¢s workÃ¢â¬ . Work is pair according to the productivity of each workers rather than a set wage. If a worker did not achieve enough in a day, he would not be deserved to be paid as much as other workers who were more productive. However, Taylor also recognised that workers may be motivated by other ways too, other than money. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific management consisted of four principles. He replaced rule-of-thumb work methods based on scientific study of the tasks. Scientifically select, train and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. He provided instruction and each worker is being supervised. Works are divided equally between managers and workers, for managers to apply scientific management principle to plan work and for workers to perform the jobs. (Mindtools, 2011) Taylors methods and his views of the worker met with resistance from labour. In 1911 Taylorism suffered a setback when workers at Watertown Federal Arsenal went on strike. Workers did not accept Taylors methods readily. Although TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific management principles aimed to improve productivity and had a substantial impact in workforces, it also increased the monotony and rigidness of work. Flexibility, skill variety, task identity, freedom, feedbacks were all not included in scientific management. Tasks are repetitive and boring and hence workers are not motivates to do the job whole heartedly. Teamwork was neglected and not emphasized in scientific management. Complaints that Taylorism was dehumanizing led to an investigation by Unites States Congress. NetMBA, 2002) Workers are treated like machines. The allocation of work, specifying not only what to be done but how it is done and the exact time to complete the task, leaving no room for workers to excel, think, display their talent and express their opinions. .There is weaknesses and flaws in TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific management. The way Taylor determined the Ã¢â¬Å"quickest and bestÃ¢â¬ method for the job is technically faulty. I t derived from a study of a group of workers who are skilled at the task. It is not an accurate representation of the whole labour, it is purposive not a random sample. Different workers have different capabilities and some are not as skilled as the studied workers, hence they may be outpaced. Taylor thought these workers may be Ã¢â¬Å"best menÃ¢â¬ at some other task, which is unlikely to happen in the real world. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s approach ignores the many difference between people. Everyone has different capabilities and weakness. There is no guarantee that a Ã¢â¬Å"best wayÃ¢â¬ will suit everyone Money indeed is an important motivation at work for many people but it is not for everyone. Taylor overlooked that fact that people may work for other reasons other than financial rewards. Despite its controversy, scientific management changes the way work was done and forms of it are used today. There are some major factors of scientific management are currently implemented. However the full adaptation of scientific management is not possible as it will cause companies resistance to change. MacDonalds is one of the biggest users of scientific management. TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s main objective was to create the best man for the job by dividing the labour and workers will be specialised in the task that they are doing. The method in which McDonalds create their hamburger is a form of deskilling and division of labour. For example they have simplified the job by firstly grilling the burger, putting in lettuce and tomatoes, adding sauce etc, putting onto rolls and then wrapping it up. This is a breakdown of the job and by having individuals do each task improves efficiency. Other process such as cooking times, drinks dispensers, French fries machines, and programmed cash registers ( (Huczynski, p. 434), are methods that are used to reduce time that is needed to complete the task and hence showing that aspects of Taylorism. Another example of scientific management being implemented is in supermarkets. Different employees have different roles, some scan products, handle queries, replenish stocks and hence this is all adapting some aspects of Taylor in terms of division of labour. Another sector that is using scientific management is call centres. Staffs were checked upon by their supervisors on whether they were giving an efficient and good service. This is the foundation of scientific management which replaced the old rule of thumb. Managers gain control over employees, by recording or listening to their conversations they are in. Piece rate system is adopted to motivate workers. Similarly in call centres staffs are given a basic wage and then commission for every sale and if they meet their daily or weekly targets they are given bonuses Although the whole principle of Taylorism is not practiced much today, scientific management did provide many significant contributions to the advancement of management practice. It introduced systematic selection and training procedures, it provided a way to study workplace efficiency, and it encouraged the idea of systematic organizational design. Work count: 1684 Bibliography Huczynski, A. (n. d. ). Organizational Behaviour. 434. managementstudyguide. (2008). managementstudyguide. Retrieved Feburary 20, 2013, from managementstudyguide: http://www. managementstudyguide. com/techniques_scientificmanagement. htm Mindtools. (2011). Mindtools. Retrieved Feburary 18, 2013, from Mindtools: http://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newTMM_Taylor. htm NetMBA. (2002). Internet Centre for Management and Business Administration, Inc. Retrieved Feburary 19, 2013, from NetMBA. com: http://www. netmba. com/mgmt/scientific/ Rose. (1978). Rational Workmen and Incompetent Managers. 35.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Smoking in Public Places Essay Smoking in Public Places Essay Smoking in Public Places Should be Banned In the 1990s, the government started regulating the areas in which smokers may light up. There have been many debates over the years concerning where Americans may smoke. Smokers account for about twenty percent of America while the non-smokers account for eighty percent. The government has instrumented laws preventing smoking indoors. Smoking in all public places should be banned because it negatively affects non-smokers and smoking should not be allowed to upon on othersÃ¢â¬â¢ breathing space. Many smokers may not be aware of what chemicals are found in cigarettes. Ã¢â¬Å"Cigarettes contain up to 7,000 chemical compounds and more than 250 of these are known to be harmful, and 69 are known to cause cancer.Ã¢â¬ The same chemicals may also be found in household items like paint thinner and pesticides. If more information like this were available to the public, smokers would think twice before they lit up. On average, a person would not inhale a pesticide or paint thinner. That is what people should consider before they light up (Johnson 36). There is another way chemicals and particles can travel through the air. This is called third-hand smoke. This is when the smoke off the cigarette gets shuffled around by the wind. The particles get trapped on objects like leaves and grass. Ã¢â¬Å"One study has shown fumes from smoke were found as far as 44 feet away. Other studies claim that, on the right windy day, fumes can rival what you may encounter in an indoor environment.Ã¢â¬ These studies have not been around for very long and have little research shown. Since the research shows evidence of the particles in the air and on objects, it is safe to assume that the chemicals from smoking may be harmful to others (Stobbe np). The surgeon generalÃ¢â¬â¢s office has been warning people from the 1960s of the effects of second-hand smoke. They state, Ã¢â¬Å"There is no safe level of exposure to Second hand smoke, and any exposure is harmful.Ã¢â¬ Their research also suggests that second hand smoke causes cancer and heart problems. Heart disease is the most common which results in 46,000 deaths every year. It also showed that lung cancer kills around 3,400 a year. The research shows that thousands are dying every year from exposer to second-hand smoke. Based on this research, there is evidence to suggest innocent people are being harmed every year from second-hand smoke (American Cancer Institute 4). Ã¢â¬Å"Tobacco smoke is one of the most common asthma triggers.Ã¢â¬ Smoke irritates the linings of the airway which can produce an attack. The severity of these can range from mild to serious. In a severe case, the lungs cannot receive enough air due to the swelling of these linings. The Center for Disease and Control and Prevention has concluded that even the slightest particles from smoke may cause an asthma attack. Since asthma attacks can be fatal, it is best to only allow it in a personal area where they are not in contact with others (CDC 5). Even though cigarette smoke has been proven harmful, many argue that smoking should be allowed in parks. The parks are shared by non-smokers and smokers alike. That should not give one group more power over the other. Everyone pays taxes which provide the park maintenance and salaries of the employees who keep the parks open. Jacob Sullum provides a rousing rebuttal on the defense of the smokers. He states that the government bureaucrats must respect the rights of adults who make the decision to smoke. Parks should have designated smoking areas for those who choose to smoke. Almost all states have banned it from indoor environments. They should have the right to light up in designated areas in an outdoor setting like a park (Sullum
Monday, March 2, 2020
Understanding the Cash Nexus in History and Today Cash nexus is a phrase that refers toÃ the depersonalized relationship that exists between employers and employees in a capitalist society. It was coined by Thomas Carlyle, a nineteenth-century Scottish historian, but is often erroneously attributed to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It was, however, Marx and Engels who popularized the concept in their writings and fueled use of the phrase within the fields of political economy and sociology. Overview Cash nexus is a phrase and concept that became associated with the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels because it perfectly encapsulates their thinking about the alienating nature of the relations of production within a capitalist economy. While Marx critiqued the social and political impacts of capitalism at length in all of his works, in particular inÃ Capital, Volume 1, it is withinÃ The Communist ManifestoÃ (1848), jointly written by Marx and Engels, that one finds the most referenced passage relating to term. The bourgeoisie, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It has pitilessly torn asunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his Ã¢â¬Å"natural superiorsÃ¢â¬ , and has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest, than callous Ã¢â¬Å"cash paymentÃ¢â¬ . It has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religiousÃ fervour, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom Ã¢â¬â Free Trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation. A nexus, simply put, is a connection between things. In the passage quoted above, Marx and Engels argue that in the interest of profit, the bourgeoisiethe ruling class during the epoch of classical capitalismhad stripped away any and all connections between people except for cash payment. What they refer to here is the commodification of labor, whereby the labor of workers is effectively sold and bold on the capitalist market. Marx and Engels suggested that the commodification of labor makes workers interchangeable, and leads to workers being viewed as things rather than people. This condition further leads to commodity fetishism, wherein relations between peopleworkers and employersare viewed and understood as between thingsmoney and labor. In other words, the cash nexus has a dehumanizing power. This mindset on the part of the bourgeoisie, or among todays managers, owners, CEOs, and shareholders is a dangerous and destructive one that fosters the extreme exploitation of workers in the pursuit of profit across all industries, locally and around the world. The Cash Nexus Today The effect of the cash nexus on the lives of workers around the world has only intensified in the more than a hundred years since Marx and Engels wrote about this phenomenon. This has happened because controls on the capitalist market, including protections for workers, have been progressively dismantled since the 1960s. The removal of national barriers to relations of production which ushered in global capitalism was and continues to be disastrous for workers. Workers in the U.S. and other Western nations saw production jobs disappear because corporations were freed to pursue cheaper labor overseas. And beyond the Western world, in places like China, Southeast Asia, and India, where most of our goods are made, workers are forced to accept poverty-level wages and dangerous working conditions because, like commodities, those who run the system view them as easily replaceable. The conditions faced by workers throughout Apples supply chain are a case-in-point. Though the company preaches values of progress and togetherness, it is ultimately the cash nexus that determines its impact on workers of the world. UpdatedÃ by Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Task Motivated Leadership - Assignment Example According to Kinicki & Kreitner (2011), the concept of task motivated leadership approach usually emphasizes the organizational roles and responsibilities. This assumption also ensures the proper structure of an organization, which can ensure minimization of the problems being faced within an organization. The task motivated leadership approach usually applies in order to reduce the degree of uncertainty in a particular society. This approach also provides a significant direction with clarity, helping an organization to establish identification in a meaningful manner. The task motivated leadership approach is correspondingly used to establish distinctive properties with the coordination of several small parts in the short-run by organizations. Contextually, it has been identified that several mutual interactions usually involve in a systematic approach, following the Task motivated leadership style, in order to accomplish the objective of an organization (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2011). The other leadership style described by Kinicki & Kreitner (2011), i.e. the relationship-motivation leadership approach, usually concentrates on the sustainability needs of an organization more than the task-oriented profitability needs. Based on the sustainability notion, this approach pays due significance towards sufficing the requirement of the employees in an organization. Leaders following this particular leadership style are observed to be much concerned about preserving employee satisfaction, considering the value based notion that employees are the most critical resources of the organization. The relationship-motivation leadership approach herewith focuses on the aspects of power distribution within an organization.Ã